Psychotherapy in English ... in Rome 

"Man is disturbed not by things, but by the views he takes of them."    Epictetus     

Cognitive Distortions


    ALL OR NOTHING THINKING:

    You see things in black and white categories. If your performance falls short of perfect, you see yourself as a total failure.

    OVERGENERALIZATION:

    You see a single negative event as a never ending pattern of defeat. If something bad happens once, you expect it to happen over and over again.

    MENTAL FILTERING:

    You pick out a single negative detail and focus on it exclusively so that your reality becomes darkened, like the drop of ink that colors the entire beaker of water.

    DISQUALIFYING THE POSITIVE:

    You reject positive experiences by insisting that they “don't count”, for one reason or another. In this way you maintain a negative belief that is contradicted by your everyday life.

    JUMPING TO CONCLUSIONS:

a. MIND READING: You arbitrarily conclude that someone is thinking/reacting negatively about/toward you.

b. THE FORTUNE TELLER ERROR: You anticipate that things will turn out badly, and are convinced that your prediction is an already established fact.  

MAGNIFICATION (Catastrophizing) or MINIMIZATION:

You exaggerate the importance of events (such as your mistake, or someone else's achievement), or you inappropriately shrink things until they appear tiny (your own desirable qualities or someone else's imprefections).  

EMOTIONAL REASONING

You assume that your negative emotions necessarily reflect the way things really are.

LABELING and MISLABELING:

This is a form of overgeneralization. Rather than using descriptive language when talking about a mistake, an event, or a person, you use negative labels instead. “I'm an idiot”. The language is often highly colored and emotionally charged.

SHOULD STATEMENTS:

You try to motivate yourself with “should” and “shouldn't” as if you had to be proded and punished before you could be expected to do something. The emothional consequence is guilt. When you direct “should” statements at others, you feel anger and resentment.

PERSONALIZATION:

You see yourself as the cause of some negative, external event for which you were in fact not responsible.